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Physical Science 1100 Chapter 11 - 13 MC Review



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Which is not matter?
a.
electrons
c.
charcoal
b.
heat
d.
air
 

2. 

Which science deals with the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter?
a.
chemistry
c.
thermodynamics
b.
physics
d.
geology
 

3. 

If all samples of a material have identical properties and composition, it is
a.
a compound.
c.
a homogeneous mixture.
b.
an element or compound.
d.
an element.
 

4. 

A sample of matter that contains atoms that all have the same number of protons is
a.
an element.
c.
a compound.
b.
a homogeneous mixture.
d.
a substance.
 

5. 

The identity of an atom is determined by its number of
a.
neutrons.
c.
valence bonds.
b.
electrons.
d.
protons.
 

6. 

A substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined in a definite, fixed proportion by mass is
a.
a compound.
c.
a suspension
b.
a mixture.
d.
an ion.
 

7. 

A watermelon is a good example of
a.
a heterogeneous mixture.
c.
an element.
b.
a compound.
d.
a homogeneous mixture.
 

8. 

The greater amount of substance in a solution is generally called the
a.
solvent.
c.
salt.
b.
molar concentrate.
d.
solute.
 

9. 

A metal alloy, such as bronze, is
a.
a heterogeneous mixture.
c.
a homogeneous mixture.
b.
a compound.
d.
an element.
 

10. 

What was the nationality of the first persons who we know speculated about “elements”?
a.
Egyptian
c.
Greek
b.
Chinese
d.
Roman
 

11. 

The symbol for carbon is
a.
C.
c.
Cr.
b.
Co.
d.
Ca.
 

12. 

The symbol for tin is
a.
Ti.
c.
Sn.
b.
Sb.
d.
In.
 

13. 

When the atoms of two or more elements react chemically, they usually join together to form
a.
isomers.
c.
new elements.
b.
isotopes.
d.
molecules.
 

14. 

Only two elements, mercury and ______________, are liquid at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
a.
iodine
c.
sodium
b.
bromine
d.
phosphorus
 

15. 

Pencil “lead” (graphite) is made primarily of
a.
PbO.
c.
Pb.
b.
carbon.
d.
oil.
 

16. 

Along with O2, which is an allotrope of oxygen?
a.
O3
c.
O5
b.
O4
d.
O½
 

17. 

Two or more forms of the same element that have different bonding structures in the same physical phase are called
a.
isotopes.
c.
isobars.
b.
isomers.
d.
allotropes.
 

18. 

The second most abundant element in the Earth’s atmosphere is
a.
argon.
c.
nitrogen.
b.
oxygen.
d.
carbon dioxide.
 

19. 

The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called
a.
groups.
c.
families.
b.
series.
d.
periods.
 

20. 

The chemical properties of chlorine and bromine are similar because both
a.
have two electrons in the first shell.
b.
have seven valence electrons.
c.
are in the same period.
d.
are nonmetals and close together in the periodic table.
 

21. 

In general, elements that have four to eight electrons in their valence shell are
a.
metalloids.
c.
semimetals.
b.
metals.
d.
nonmetals.
 

22. 

Electrons in the outermost shell are referred to as ______________ electrons.
a.
s shell
c.
valence
b.
orbital
d.
f shell
 

23. 

Which of the following Group 1A elements has the largest atom?
a.
Rb
c.
Li
b.
Na
d.
K
 

24. 

How many valence electrons do the Group 6A elements have?
a.
zero
c.
6
b.
7
d.
1
 

25. 

This solid, metallic element will melt in the hand.
a.
technetium
c.
gallium
b.
tin
d.
sodium
 

26. 

Which of the following Period 3 atoms has the smallest radius?
a.
Al
c.
Ar
b.
Na
d.
S
 

27. 

How many shells in an atom of silicon contain electrons?
a.
4
c.
3
b.
2
d.
5
 

28. 

Other than those of Groups 1A and 2A, three common elements that form only one ion each are
a.
Ga, Ni, and Fe.
c.
Sc, Ti, and Hg.
b.
Al, Zn, and Ag.
d.
Pb, Sn, and Cu.
 

29. 

An atom that has more electrons than protons is a ______________ ion.
a.
neutral
c.
polyatomic
b.
positive
d.
negative
 

30. 

Which is a positively charged polyatomic ion?
a.
ammonium ion
c.
potassium ion
b.
sulfate ion
d.
sulfide ion
 

31. 

The preferred name for Cl2O7 would be
a.
chlorine(V) oxide.
c.
chlorine(II) oxide.
b.
dichlorine heptoxide.
d.
chlorine oxide.
 

32. 

Which of the following polyatomic ions has a single minus charge?
a.
acetate
c.
phosphate
b.
ammonium
d.
sulfate
 

33. 

Which is the formula for baking soda?
a.
NaHCO3
c.
(NH4)2SO4
b.
HC2H3O2
d.
NaOH
 

34. 

Atoms of which group of elements have seven electrons in the outer shell?
a.
halogens
c.
noble gases
b.
alkali metals
d.
alkaline earth metals
 

35. 

The most reactive of all elements is
a.
fluorine.
c.
sodium.
b.
chlorine.
d.
hydrogen.
 

36. 

A compound of which element is used as a diet supplement to prevent thyroid problems?
a.
chlorine
c.
carbon
b.
calcium
d.
iodine
 

37. 

Calcium carbonate is the major component of each of these except
a.
seashells.
c.
stalagmites.
b.
limestone.
d.
bones.
 

38. 

The Group 7A element astatine (85At) would be predicted to occur in what phase?
a.
plasma
c.
solid
b.
liquid
d.
gas
 

39. 

The element potassium should produce compounds most similar to those of
a.
Al.
c.
Tc.
b.
Sr.
d.
Na
 

40. 

An equilibrium between solute dissolving and solute crystallizing is characteristic of which of the following solution types?
a.
supersaturated
b.
concentrated
c.
saturated
d.
unsaturated
 

41. 

Generally, the solubility of gases in liquids increases with
a.
increasing temperature and decreasing pressure.
b.
decreasing temperature and increasing pressure.
c.
increasing temperature and increasing pressure.
d.
decreasing temperature and decreasing pressure.
 

42. 

An atom of chlorine has how many valence electrons?
a.
1
c.
4
b.
17
d.
7
 

43. 

One product of photosynthesis is
a.
hydrogen.
c.
methane.
b.
carbon dioxide.
d.
oxygen.
 

44. 

The process of melting lead is an example of
a.
a chemical change.
c.
a chemical property.
b.
a physical change.
d.
a physical property.
 

45. 

Which is a chemical change?
a.
dry ice subliming
c.
paper being shredded
b.
limestone being crushed to powder
d.
sulfur burning
 

46. 

The substances that are formed by a chemical reaction are called the
a.
precipitates.
c.
products.
b.
chemicals.
d.
reactants.
 

47. 

A balanced chemical equation will have the same ______________ on each side.
a.
number of atoms of each element
c.
number of moles
b.
mass of each compound
d.
number of molecules
 

48. 

The equation H2O2 ® H2O + O is not correctly written because
a.
hydrogen peroxide decomposes to H2O and H.
b.
the mass indicated on each side is not the same.
c.
the number of atoms of each element on each side is not the same.
d.
oxygen is diatomic.
 

49. 

Which type of reaction is 4 Al + 3 O2 ® 2Al2O3?
a.
combination
c.
double-replacement
b.
decomposition
d.
single-replacement
 

50. 

In general, slow reactions
a.
are endothermic.
c.
are exothermic.
b.
have low activation energies.
d.
have high activation energies.
 

51. 

The coefficients needed to balance the equation Ga + Br2 ® GaBr3 are, respectively,
a.
2, 3, and 2.
c.
1, 3, and 2.
b.
4, 3, and 2.
d.
2, 1, and 2.
 

52. 

Increased temperature usually leads to an increase in reaction rate because collisions are
a.
more violent.
c.
Both (a) and (b)
b.
more frequent.
d.
None of these
 

53. 

For an endothermic reaction, the energy barrier is ______________ on the reactant side than on the product side.
a.
not different in size
c.
smaller
b.
greater
 

54. 

A solution with a pH of 1 is
a.
weakly acidic.
c.
strongly acidic.
b.
weakly basic.
d.
strongly basic.
 

55. 

An acid added to a base will produce a
a.
salt and hydrogen ions.
c.
salt and hydroxide ions.
b.
salt and water.
d.
stronger acid and base.
 

56. 

An ionic compound composed of a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OH- is called
a.
a conjugate base.
c.
a precipitate.
b.
an acid.
d.
a salt.
 

57. 

Which compound would not precipitate from an aqueous solution during a double-replacement reaction?
a.
Cu(NO3)2
c.
AlPO4
b.
AgCl
d.
CuCO3
 

58. 

Which is a strong acid?
a.
acetic acid
c.
phosphoric acid
b.
nitric acid
d.
citric acid
 

59. 

Water solutions of which one are basic?
a.
baking soda
c.
lemonade
b.
soft drinks
d.
vinegar
 

60. 

What is the identity of stomach acid?
a.
HCl
c.
HC2H3O2
b.
H3PO4
d.
H2CO3
 

61. 

All but the most inactive metals react with acids to give
a.
hydrogen and the metal oxide.
c.
hydrogen and the metal salt.
b.
oxygen and the metal hydride.
d.
hydrogen and the metal hydroxide.
 

62. 

In order, from top to bottom, in the activity series come Li, K, Ba, Na, Al, Zn, Sn, and Pb. Therefore,
a.
sodium is more active than barium.
c.
tin is more active than lead.
b.
potassium is more active than lithium.
d.
zinc is more active than aluminum.
 

63. 

Avogadro’s number has a numerical value of
a.
1.00 ´ 1023.
c.
None of these
b.
6.02 ´ 1023.
d.
3.01 ´ 1023.
 

64. 

How many grams are in 1.00 mol of Mg?
a.
24.3
c.
6.02 ´ 1023
b.
24.3 ´ 6.02 ´ 1023
d.
24.3 ´ 1023
 

65. 

How many moles of He would 3.01 ´ 1023 helium atoms be?
a.
None of these
c.
1.00
b.
2.00
d.
4.00
 

66. 

In the activity series, Zn is more active than Pb. This means
a.
that Zn loses its electrons more easily than Pb.
b.
that Pb is more readily oxidized.
c.
that Zn is a better catalyst than Pb.
d.
None of these
 

67. 

The compound Mg(OH)2 is commonly known as
a.
Alka-Seltzer.
c.
milk of magnesia.
b.
Epsom salt.
d.
smelling salts.
 

68. 

Which compound would you expect to be soluble in water?
a.
K2CO3
b.
Ag2CO3
c.
PbCO3

d CuCO3
 

69. 

Which answer is incorrect? A base is a substance that, when dissolved in water,
a.
reacts with an acid to neutralize its properties.
b.
conducts electricity.
c.
changes the color of litmus dye from red to blue.
d.
reacts with many metals to liberate O2.
 

70. 

The rate of a chemical reaction would be decreased by
a.
adding a catalyst to the reactants.
b.
cooling the reactants.
c.
increasing the concentration of the reactants.
d.
stirring the reactants.
 

71. 

When carbon combines with oxygen, energy is released to the surroundings. Thus this reaction
a.
never reaches equilibrium.
c.
is exothermic.
b.
is endothermic.
d.
is an acid-base reaction.
 

72. 

When a hydrocarbon or carbon-hydrogen-oxygen compound is burned completely, the products are
a.
CO and H2.
c.
CH2 and O2.
b.
C and H2.
d.
CO2 and H2O.
 

73. 

What basic type of reaction is illustrated by the general equation AB ® A + B?
a.
combination
c.
double-replacement
b.
decomposition
d.
single-replacement
 

74. 

When the equation Sb2S3 + HCl ® SbCl3 + H2S is balanced, the total of all the coefficients (both written and “understood”) is
a.
12.
c.
10.
b.
14.
d.
9.
 

75. 

The equation 1/2 N2 + 3/2 H2 ® NH3 is not appropriately written because
a.
the number of atoms of each element on each side is not the same.
b.
the product is N2H4, not NH3.
c.
fractional coefficients are not generally used.
d.
nitrogen is not diatomic.
 

76. 

A chemical reaction generally has a great effect on an atom’s
a.
valence electrons.
c.
nuclear structure.
b.
nuclear binding energy.
d.
mass.
 

77. 

A chemical reaction is at equilibrium when
a.
the temperature is no longer changing.
b.
the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate.
c.
no reactants are changing to products.
d.
the total mass has become constant.
 

78. 

In the reaction between HCl and Na2CO3, which gas is formed?
a.
CH4
c.
H2
b.
O2
d.
CO2
 

79. 

Which type of reaction is AlCl3 + 3 KOH ® Al(OH)3 + 3 KCl?
a.
double-replacement
c.
decomposition
b.
single-replacement
d.
combination
 

80. 

Which type of reaction is Zn + 2 HCl ® ZnCl2 + H2?
a.
single-replacement
c.
combination
b.
decomposition
d.
double-replacement
 

81. 

When carbon combines with oxygen, energy is released to the surroundings. Thus this reaction
a.
never reaches equilibrium.
c.
is exothermic.
b.
is endothermic.
d.
is an acid-base reaction.
 

82. 

The energy necessary to start a chemical reaction is called the ______________ energy.
a.
activation
c.
endothermic
b.
combustion
d.
exothermic
 

83. 

The force responsible for chemical bonding is
a.
nuclear.
c.
gravitational.
b.
None of these
d.
electromagnetic.
 

84. 

A substance of unknown composition is heated in a sealed container. As a result, the mass of the container and its contents
a.
increase.
c.
decrease.
b.
remain the same.
d.
Any of these could occur
 

85. 

The formula mass of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is
a.
74.1 u.
c.
58.1 u.
b.
38.1 u.
d.
57.1 u.
 

86. 

The ratio by mass of carbon to hydrogen in 100 g of a certain compound is 6 to 1. The ratio in 200 g of the same compound will be
a.
6 to 1.
b.
24 to 1.
c.
12 to 1.

d None of these
 

87. 

The percentage by mass of chlorine would be
a.
greater in FeCl3 than in FeCl2.
b.
Cannot be determined without additional information
c.
less in FeCl3 than in FeCl2.
d.
the same in FeCl3 as in FeCl2.
 

88. 

A compound consists of only magnesium, carbon, and oxygen. If the percentage by mass of Mg is 28.8% and that of C is 14.2%, what is the percentage of O?
a.
43.0%
b.
2.0%
c.
57.0%
d.
Cannot be determined without additional information
 

89. 

A likely ratio of the masses of oxygen in two different compounds of tin and oxygen, both of which contain the same mass of tin, is
a.
2 to 1.
c.
3.11 to 1.
b.
1.42 to 1.
d.
3.77 to 1.
 

90. 

Which was not a part of Dalton’s atomic theory?
a.
No atoms are gained, lost, or changed in identity during a chemical reaction.
b.
Each element is composed of atoms, which are identical for that element.
c.
The reactivity of elements involves changes in the electron configurations.
d.
Chemical combination is the bonding of a definite number of atoms of each of the combining elements.
 

91. 

What electric charge is characteristic for an ion of S?
a.
0
c.
6+
b.
2+
d.
2-
 

92. 

What is the formula of a compound formed from the ions M2+ and X2-?
a.
MX
c.
M2X2
b.
M2X
d.
MX2
 

93. 

What is the formula of the compound formed from the ions of calcium and bromine?
a.
None of these
c.
CaBr3
b.
CaBr
d.
Ca2Br3
 

94. 

If a compound is solid, has a high melting point, conducts electricity in the liquid phase, and dissolves in water, it is most likely a(n)______________ compound.
a.
ionic
c.
organic
b.
intermediate
d.
covalent
 

95. 

Except for hydrogen and helium, atoms in chemical combination tend to have ______________ electrons in their outer shell.
a.
14
c.
6
b.
8
d.
2
 

96. 

The Lewis symbol of which of the following elements would have a single dot on each of the four sides of the element’s symbol?
a.
carbon
c.
None of these
b.
helium
d.
beryllium
 

97. 

Which ion would never form in chemical reactions?
a.
F2-
c.
Al3+
b.
O2-
d.
N3-
 

98. 

The ionic compound made of Fe3+ and CO32- ions would have the formula
a.
Fe2(CO3)3.
c.
None of these
b.
FeCO3.
d.
Fe3(CO3)2.
 

99. 

What is the correct formula for calcium phosphate?
a.
Ca3P2
c.
Ca2P3
b.
Ca2(PO4)3
d.
Ca3(PO4)2
 

100. 

When atoms unite by transferring electrons, they should form
a.
an ionic compound.
c.
a polar molecule.
b.
an organic compound.
d.
a covalent compound.
 

101. 

If two atoms have five electrons in the valence shell and are covalently bound, the molecule has a ______________ bond.
a.
triple
c.
double
b.
single
d.
quadruple
 

102. 

Compounds tend to be ______________ compounds if they are formed from two or more nonmetals.
a.
polar
c.
covalent
b.
organic
d.
ionic
 

103. 

A carbon dioxide molecule is
a.
linear and polar.
c.
linear and nonpolar.
b.
angular and polar.
d.
angular and nonpolar.
 

104. 

When atoms of two elements with a great difference in electronegativity bond together, the bonding is probably
a.
ionic.
c.
covalent.
b.
metallic.
d.
polar covalent.
 

105. 

Which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds?
a.
HNO3
c.
CaSO4
b.
CHCl3
d.
C12H22O11
 

106. 

Compounds formed when the atoms involved share electrons are
a.
electrovalent.
c.
covalent.
b.
organic.
d.
ionic
 

107. 

Which gas gives the characteristic odor to smelling salts and some household cleaners?
a.
ozone
c.
chlorine
b.
carbon dioxide
d.
ammonia
 

108. 

A stream of a certain liquid compound is not attracted to an electrically charged rod. The compound is probably
a.
ionic.
c.
metallic.
b.
polar covalent.
d.
nonpolar covalent.
 

109. 

A water molecule is
a.
angular and nonpolar.
c.
linear and nonpolar.
b.
linear and polar.
d.
angular and polar.
 

110. 

A hydrogen bond can be formed between
a.
the H atoms in H2 molecules.
b.
an atom of H and one of C, P, or Cl in the same molecule.
c.
an H atom in one molecule and an O, F, or N atom in another.
d.
an atom of H in one water molecule and an atom of H in another.
 

111. 

Ion-dipole interactions are responsible for
a.
ice being less dense than water.
c.
the dissolving of salt in water.
b.
metallic bonding in steel.
d.
the ease of electrolysis of water.
 

112. 

Which one of these compounds should be named using the Stock system?
a.
Au2S
c.
Ag2O
b.
ZnO
d.
Al2O3
 

113. 

The formula for iron(II) sulfate would be
a.
Fe2SO4.
c.
Fe2(SO4)2.
b.
Fe(SO4)2.
d.
FeSO4.
 

114. 

Electronegativity increases ______________ across a period and ______________ in a group.
a.
left to right; top to bottom
c.
right to left; bottom to top
b.
right to left; top to bottom
d.
left to right; bottom to top
 

115. 

An ammonia molecule is
a.
flat and polar.
c.
pyramidal and nonpolar.
b.
flat and nonpolar.
d.
pyramidal and polar.
 

116. 

Which compound would be expected to be hard and brittle and to have a high melting point?
a.
H2SO4
c.
IF7
b.
H2C2O4
d.
KBr
 

117. 

Which ion is isoelectronic with a neon atom?
a.
Li+
c.
Cl-
b.
F2-
d.
N3-
 

118. 

If atoms unite by transfer of electrons, they form
a.
a polar molecule.
c.
an organic compound.
b.
a covalent compound.
d.
an ionic compound.
 

119. 

What is the formula of the compound formed from the ions of aluminum and oxygen?
a.
AlO
c.
None of these
b.
AlO3
d.
Al2O3
 

120. 

Suppose 25 g of reactant A is mixed with 45 g of reactant B. After a chemical reaction takes place between A and B, which statement is correct?
a.
The total mass of products plus any unreacted reactants will be more than 70 g.
b.
The total mass of products will be 70 g.
c.
The total mass of products plus any unreacted reactants will be less than 70 g.
d.
The total mass of products plus any unreacted reactants will be 70 g.
 

121. 

The percentage composition by mass of nitrogen dioxide is approximately
a.
47% N and 53% O.
c.
33% N and 67% O.
b.
43% N and 57% O.
d.
30% N and 70% O.
 

122. 

The percentage by mass of chlorine would be
a.
greater in FeCl3 than in FeCl2.
b.
the same in FeCl3 as in FeCl2.
c.
Cannot be determined without additional information
d.
less in FeCl3 than in FeCl2.
 

123. 

Which of these elements normally exists as a gas of diatomic molecules?
a.
iodine
c.
sulfur
b.
argon
d.
chlorine
 

124. 

Graphite, diamond, and buckyball are ________  of carbon.
a.
isotopes
c.
compounds
b.
allotropes
d.
isomers
 

125. 

Consider the element magnesium. Which statement is false?
a.
It is in Period 3.
c.
It is in Group 2A.
b.
It has electrons in 3 shells.
d.
It has 12 valence electrons.
 

126. 

Which of these elements is most like fluorine in its chemical properties?
a.
chlorine
c.
oxygen
b.
neon
d.
hydrogen
 

127. 

The law of conservation of mass was discovered in 1774 by which scientist?
a.
Lavoisier
c.
Lewis
b.
Dalton
d.
Proust
 

128. 

What is the total number of atoms in one formula unit of (NH4)3PO4?
a.
10
c.
18
b.
16
d.
20
 

129. 

During a chemical reaction which of the following occur?
a.
No atoms are created
c.
No atoms change their identity
b.
No atoms are destroyed
d.
All of these
 

130. 

What is the normal charge on an ion of oxygen?
a.
6-
c.
2-
b.
6+
d.
2+
 

131. 

What is the formula for Iron(III) Bromide?
a.
FeBr
c.
FeBr3
b.
Fe3Br
d.
Fe3Br3
 

132. 

When iron rusts which of the following is occuring?
a.
a physical property
c.
a chemical change
b.
a physical change
d.
a reduction
 

133. 

When the equation MnO2 + CO ==> Mn2O3 +  CO2 is balanced, what is the sum of all 4 coefficients?
a.
4
c.
6
b.
5
d.
8
 

134. 

Which of the following is not produced in a combustion reaction?
a.
carbon Dioxide
c.
water
b.
energy
d.
a salt
 

135. 

What is the pH of a solution 10 times as acidic as one of pH 4?
a.
3
c.
5
b.
14
d.
-6
 



 
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