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Science Activities
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Physical and Chemical Changes

5th grade
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Table of Contents

1. Georgia Performance Standard
2. Topic Web Sites
3. Activities
4. Software Programs



What is the difference between a physical and a chemical change?

Georgia Performance Standard

S5P2 Students will explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.

a. Investigate physical changes by separating mixtures and manipulating (cutting, tearing, folding) paper to demonstrate examples of physical change.

b. Recognize that the changes in state of water (water vapor/steam, liquid, ice) are due to temperature differences and are examples of physical change.

c. Investigate the properties of a substance before, during, and after a chemical reaction to find evidence of change.

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 Topic Web Sites

                  Learn the definition of physical and chemical changes!

Discover the difference between a physical and a chemical change, while also discovering some great examples of each.

                 
it

Physical verse Chemical Change

This is a great powerpoint that lets you explore the fascinating world of chemical and physical changes. There are some really cool examples in the powerpoint.

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Change is Cool!

This website gives a detailed description of a physical change.

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Test your Knowledge!

This website lets you test your knowledge to see how much you have learned. Good luck!

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Science For Kids!

Great website that lets you take an inside look at chemical and physical changes.

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Experiment With Physical and Chemical Changes!

Activity 1: Dissolving Salt
Description of Activity: This lesson will demonstrate to students that matter, such as salt, may seem to have disappeared when it is dissolved in water, but it is still there.

PLO: Students will learn that matter is neither created nor destroyed even though it may undergo change.

Materials:
 clear plastic cup
, scale, table salt, plastic spoon for stirring, measuring spoon
Procedures

First students should explore the website Change is Cool!

Show the class a glass of water and have them list its physical properties. Next show them some salt and have them list its properties. Pour approximately one tablespoon of table salt into the water and stir until all the salt has dissolved. Ask the class to describe the salt water. Say: “You can't see the salt; where did the salt go?” Have someone taste the salt water and describe how it tastes. Ask: “Where has the salt gone?” (It's still in the water; you can taste it.) Have the students suggest ways that could be used to get the salt back out of the water. Then have teams complete the Instructional Procedures below.

Cooperative teams of 3-5 should complete the following procedures:

  1. Pour about 15 ml (about 1 tablespoon) of salt into a clear plastic cup. Place the cup on a scale and find the weight of the cup and the salt.Record the weight.
  2. Fill the cup about 1/3 full of hot tap water and stir until all the salt has dissolved.
  3. Using a permanent marker draw a line at the level of the water and place the cup where it can remain undisturbed while the water evaporates.
  4. Make a prediction (Hypothesis): What will happen to the salt when the water evaporates?
  5. Check the cup daily. If you notice any changes record your observations.
  6. When the water has completely evaporated,record your observations of the cup. Weigh the cup and the material in the cup. Record the weight.
  7. Answer the following questions:
    • How does the weight of the cup after the water evaporated compare with the weight of the cup and the salt before the water was added? Explain why.
    • What is the material in the cup?
    • Was your prediction correct?
    • When the salt dissolved in the water, was it a chemical reaction or a physical change? How do you know? (It was a physical change because all of the salt was still there when the water evaporated. There were no new substances formed.)

Product:

Students will learn the definition of physical change and experiment with one by seperating mixtures.









Activity 2: Chemical Changes
Description of Activity: Students will conduct fours experiments to see the different effects of chemical changes.

PLO:  Students will be able to explore some examples of chemical changes.
Materials:
Medicine dropper, vinegar, baking soda, hydrogen peroxide, clear plastic cup, apron, apple,
green food coloring, tooth pick, bleach, safety googles, knife
                 

Procedures:

First students should explore the website
Learn the definition of physical and chemical changes!.
Tell students that one way of describing the characteristics of a pure substance is by its chemical properties. 
A chemical change produces a new substance with different chemical properties. Chemical properties help you describe
the way one substance will chemically react with another substance. Color changes, solid formation, bubble of gas formation, and color
disappearance are indicators of chemical changes. In this experiment you will look at some chemical changes.

Experiment 1
Cut an apple into two sections. Observe the exposed area immediately. After
ten minutes observe what happens to the inside color. The oxygen in the air
reacted chemically with the apple and caused a color change.

Experiment 2
Pour a quarter cup of vinegar into a clear plastic cup. Add a teaspoon of
baking soda to the vinegar and observer. The vinegar reacted chemically with
the baking soda and produced bubbles of carbon dioxide.

Experiment 3
Put a drop of green food color in a clear plastic cup. Add a half cup of water.
Mix with a toothpick. Place some bleach in another cup using the medicine
dropper. Add 30 drops of bleach to the water and green food color. Observe
what happens. The bleaching of the green color by the bleach is an indication
of a chemical change.

Experiment 4
Place a quarter cup of hydrogen peroxide in a clear plastic cup and add a slice
of apple. Observe the slice of apple and check for the formation of bubbles.
The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen as one of the products
is an example of a chemical change.

Product:

Students will be able to recognize if a chemical change has occurred.





 

Activity 3: Chemical versus Physical Changes
Description of Activity:  Students will conduct two experiments to see the difference between a physical and a chemical change.
PLO: Students will learn the difference between a physical and chemical reaction.
Materials:
Experiment 1: Ammonium nitrate, tap water, ziplock bag (sandwich size), graduated cylinder,safety goggles, gloves, apron

Experiment 2: Calcium chloride, baking soda, acid-base indicator, ziplock bags, spoons, graduated cylinders
Procedures:

First students should explore the website
Physical verse Chemical Change.

Experiment 1: Instant Cold Pack
The process in making the cold pack is not a chemical reaction but merely the physical act of dissolving. When ammonium nitrate is dissolved in water, the process is endothermic, thus producing the cold pack.
1. Weigh out 25 grams of ammonium nitrate directly into a one-quart size Ziplock plastic bag.
2. Using a graduated cylinder, measure out 50 mL of water.
3. Quickly, pour the water into the bag of ammonium nitrate, and seal the bag (try and remove excess air before sealing the bag.)
4. Gently squeeze the bag to mix the solid and water.
5. Let the students feel the bag. It becomes cold within seconds and will remain cold for about 20 minutes.

Experiment 2: Reaction in a Bag
Introduces students to a chemical reaction involving a color change, the formation of a gas and heat changes from hot to cold. The students can actually hold this chemical reaction in their hands to see and feel the reaction take place. The acid-base indicator will change colors (from basic to acidic). For example: phenol red solution goes from red to orange to yellow. Universal indicator solution starts out green and changes to pink. Cabbage juice, changes from blue-green to purple to pink. The plastic bag will also inflate due to the formation of carbon dioxide gas.

1. Place one spoonful of calcium chloride into a plastic sealable bag.
2. place 1 spoonful of sodium bicarbonate (BAKING SODA) into the bag. Seal the bag, shake it and see if a chemical reaction takes place.
3. measure 10 ml (or 2 teaspoons) of indicator solution. Carefully add it to the bag. Flatten the bag to remove the air and seal it.
4. Tilt the bag back-and-forth to wet all of the solid. Squeezing the bag may also help in wetting the solid. Be careful not to squeeze the bag too hard as it might break or open up.
5. observe the reaction. If the bag gets tight due to pressure, open the seal to release the pressure, then reseal it.
6. Answer the following:
    a.) How was this experiment different then the one before?
    b.) Did a noticeable reaction occur before the indicator solution was added?
    c.) What color change did the indicator go through?
    d.) Why does the bag inflate?
    e.) Does the reaction get hot or cold initially?
    f.) Does the reaction get hot or cold after 1 minute?
    g.) What observations did you make that tell you a chemical reaction is taking place?
    h.) Was this experiment a physical or chemical reaction?

Product:

Students will be able to explain the difference between a physical and chemical change. Students will be able to give an example of each.





Software Sensations


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Title of software program: Science Court
Published by:Tom Snyder Productions
Introduce core science concepts and model good scientific practice with this fun and engaging series that mixes animated courtroom drama, hands-on science activities, and humor. As each case unfolds, students examine the facts and perform hands-on experiments to help them predict the verdict. By discussing their findings in groups and as a class, students are able to articulate and comprehend challenging science topics.
When using this program students should not encounter many problems because the software is designed for grades 4th - 6th.




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Title of software program: I Love Science!
Published by: Kids Click Software
Three science-crazy characters, Mo Mentum, Al Luminium and Rosie Gardener invite kids into their wierd science labs. Each lab is packed with jokes, activities, games, experiments and lots more.

This CD is packed with over 100 science experiments, 1,000 science problems and 60 off-computer experiments, plus parent help and print-outs. Curricula for grades 2-5 are included.

With this amazing CD kids will discover astonishing facts and important principals. Science grades will go up, up, up.

Students may anticipate problems with this software by thinking it is too easy because of the characters names.



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Title of software program: Encyclopedia of Science
Published by: Dorling Kindersley

Dissolve the mysteries of chemical reactions, learn about the great thinkers and their amazing discoveries, and explore how science has advanced tremendously as each discovery becomes a building block for new breakthroughs. Using the innovative DK signature combination of clicking dials and gauges, twisting pipes, moving levers and switches, large spinning gyros, sliding panels, and crackling electrical currents, this program creates a living laboratory environment that students will want to explore.
Students may anticipate problems with the software because of difficult questions. The software is designed for 3rd - 12th grade.





Title of software program: Microsoft Word
Published by: Microsoft

This is a great software program for students to have. It is useful in writing papers, reports, and letters. It even has a spell check tool so students can turn in papers
with perfect spelling.

I do not think students will anticipate any problems with this software. It contains many beneficial tools.






Title of software program: Microsoft Powerpoint
Published by: Microsoft
This is a great software program for students because it allows them to create magnificent presentations. They can let their imaginations run wild with colored slides, clip art images, and funky fonts.
Students may find it difficult at first to learn how some of the tools work in this software program, but after experimenting with it it will become easier.



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