Learning Quiz 2 KEY 33 points
1. Learning occurs when one's performance
changes as a result of experiences. There are 3 "types" of learning:
respondent/classical, instrumental/operant, and SOCIAL/OBSERVATIONAL.
2. In classical conditioning, the
name of the type of stimulus that will automatically cause (without pairing)
a reflexive response is UNCONDITIONED stimulus. (1)
3. Classically conditioned responses
are weakened as a result of which phenomenon ? (1) EXTINCTION
4. Which type/category of learning
is MOST important to education? OPERANT Justify your choice.
(2) IT IS HOW VOLUNTARY BEHAVIORS SUCH AS READING, COMPUTING, ETC. ARE
LEARNED. KNOWLEDGE OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, THUS, IS CRITICAL TO TEACHING.
IN ORDER TO TEACH, TEACHERS NEED TO KNOW THE LAWS GOVERNING LEARNING.
5. What is the basic difference
between a PRIMARY and a SECONDARY reinforcer? (1) PRIMARY-WORKS AUTOMATICALLY
IF YOU ARE DEPRIVED WITH RESPECT TO IT. SECONDARY REINFORCERS ARE LEARNED.
6. Define the following operant processes and diagram two of them.
EXTINCTION (2) WEAKENING A RESPONSE
BY NO LONGER REINFORCING IT.
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (2) R
+(+) =+ AFTER A RESPONSE ADD A POSITIVE REINFORCER AND THE BEH. IS MORE
LIKELY TO OCCUR.
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (2) R
- (-) =+ BEHAVIORS THAT RESULT IN THE REMOVAL OF NEGATIVE REINFORCERS ARE,
AS A RESULT, MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR AGAIN IN THE FUTURE.
PUNISHMENT (2) R + (-) = - BEHAVIORS
THAT PRODUCE (I.E., ARE FOLLOWED BY) NEGATIVE REINFORCERS ARE LESS LIKELY
TO OCCUR AGAIN.
RESPONSE COST (PUNISHMENT II) (2)
R - (+) = - BEHAVIORS THAT RESULT IN THE REMOVAL OF POSITIVE REINFORCERS
ARE LESS LIKELY TO OCCUR AGAIN.
7. The Premack Principle is most
closely related to which of the processes listed in # 6? (2) POSITIVE
8. Which operant process is best
used to teach a person a response the person cannot currently do? (2) SHAPING
(FULL); POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (PARTIAL)
10. Describe the 3 rules for using consequences effectively. (CIP) (6)
CONSEQUENCES MUST IMMEDIATELY
FOLLOW RESPONSES, BE CONTINGENT ON THE RESPONSE (THERE MUST BE AN
IF-THEN RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RESPONSE AND THE CONSEQUENCE), AND THE
CONSEQUENCE MUST BE POWERFUL.
11. In continuous reinforcement
(i.e., fixed ratio 1) each time the response of interest occurs, it is
followed by a positive reinforcer. There are four types of intermittent
schedules of reinforcement, two time based and two response based. List
the four. (4). FIXED RATIO; VARIABLE RATIO, FIXED INTERVAL, AND VARIABLE
12. Describe what happens in Bandura's social learning. (3)
IN OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING, A
LEARNER WATCHES ANOTHER PERSON DO A RESPONSE AND IMITATES WHAT HAS BEEN
Last Updated: July 15, 1997